Git
Topics ▾ Version 1.5.5.2 ▾ git-push last updated in 2.14.2

NAME

git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects

SYNOPSIS

git-push [--all] [--dry-run] [--tags] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
           [--repo=all] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [<repository> <refspec>…​]

DESCRIPTION

Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects necessary to complete the given refs.

You can make interesting things happen to a repository every time you push into it, by setting up hooks there. See documentation for git-receive-pack[1].

OPTIONS

<repository>

The "remote" repository that is destination of a push operation. See the section GIT URLS below.

<refspec>

The canonical format of a <refspec> parameter is +?<src>:<dst>; that is, an optional plus +, followed by the source ref, followed by a colon :, followed by the destination ref.

The <src> side represents the source branch (or arbitrary "SHA1 expression", such as master~4 (four parents before the tip of master branch); see git-rev-parse[1]) that you want to push. The <dst> side represents the destination location.

The local ref that matches <src> is used to fast forward the remote ref that matches <dst> (or, if no <dst> was specified, the same ref that <src> referred to locally). If the optional leading plus + is used, the remote ref is updated even if it does not result in a fast forward update.

Note: If no explicit refspec is found, (that is neither on the command line nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below), then "matching" heads are pushed: for every head that exists on the local side, the remote side is updated if a head of the same name already exists on the remote side.

tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>.

A parameter <ref> without a colon pushes the <ref> from the source repository to the destination repository under the same name.

Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from the remote repository.

\--all

Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs under $GIT_DIR/refs/heads/ be pushed.

\--mirror

Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs under $GIT_DIR/refs/heads/ and $GIT_DIR/refs/tags/ be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs will be removed from the remote end.

\--dry-run

Do everything except actually send the updates.

\--tags

All refs under $GIT_DIR/refs/tags are pushed, in addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command line.

\--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>

Path to the git-receive-pack program on the remote end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in a directory on the default $PATH.

\--exec=<git-receive-pack>

Same as \--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>.

-f, \--force

Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it. This flag disables the check. This can cause the remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.

\--repo=<repo>

When no repository is specified the command defaults to "origin"; this overrides it.

\--thin, \--no-thin

These options are passed to git-send-pack. Thin transfer spends extra cycles to minimize the number of objects to be sent and meant to be used on slower connection.

-v, \--verbose

Run verbosely.

GIT URLS

One of the following notations can be used to name the remote repository:

  • rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

  • http://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

  • https://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

  • git://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

  • git://host.xz/~user/path/to/repo.git/

  • ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

  • ssh://[user@]host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

  • ssh://[user@]host.xz/~user/path/to/repo.git/

  • ssh://[user@]host.xz/~/path/to/repo.git

SSH is the default transport protocol over the network. You can optionally specify which user to log-in as, and an alternate, scp-like syntax is also supported. Both syntaxes support username expansion, as does the native git protocol, but only the former supports port specification. The following three are identical to the last three above, respectively:

  • [user@]host.xz:/path/to/repo.git/

  • [user@]host.xz:~user/path/to/repo.git/

  • [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git

To sync with a local directory, you can use:

They are mostly equivalent, except when cloning. See git-clone[1] for details.

REMOTES

In addition to the above, as a short-hand, the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes directory can be given; the named file should be in the following format:

	URL: one of the above URL format
	Push: <refspec>
	Pull: <refspec>

Then such a short-hand is specified in place of <repository> without <refspec> parameters on the command line, <refspec> specified on Push: lines or Pull: lines are used for git-push and git-fetch/git-pull, respectively. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for additional branch mappings.

Or, equivalently, in the $GIT_DIR/config (note the use of fetch instead of Pull:):

	[remote "<remote>"]
		url = <url>
		push = <refspec>
		fetch = <refspec>

The name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches directory can be specified as an older notation short-hand; the named file should contain a single line, a URL in one of the above formats, optionally followed by a hash # and the name of remote head (URL fragment notation). $GIT_DIR/branches/<remote> file that stores a <url> without the fragment is equivalent to have this in the corresponding file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes/ directory.

	URL: <url>
	Pull: refs/heads/master:<remote>

while having <url>#<head> is equivalent to

	URL: <url>
	Pull: refs/heads/<head>:<remote>

OUTPUT

The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either locally or via ssh).

The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:

 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
flag

A single character indicating the status of the ref. This is blank for a successfully pushed ref, ! for a ref that was rejected or failed to push, and = for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing (note that the status of up to date refs is shown only when git push is running verbosely).

summary

For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to git log (this is <old>..<new> in most cases, and <old>...<new> for forced non-fast forward updates). For a failed update, more details are given for the failure. The string rejected indicates that git did not try to send the ref at all (typically because it is not a fast forward). The string remote rejected indicates that the remote end refused the update; this rejection is typically caused by a hook on the remote side. The string remote failure indicates that the remote end did not report the successful update of the ref (perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a break in the network connection, or other transient error).

from

The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its refs/<type>/ prefix. In the case of deletion, the name of the local ref is omitted.

to

The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/ prefix.

reason

A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for failure is described.

Examples

git push origin master

Find a ref that matches master in the source repository (most likely, it would find refs/heads/master), and update the same ref (e.g. refs/heads/master) in origin repository with it. If master did not exist remotely, it would be created.

git push origin :experimental

Find a ref that matches experimental in the origin repository (e.g. refs/heads/experimental), and delete it.

git push origin master:satellite/master

Find a ref that matches master in the source repository (most likely, it would find refs/heads/master), and update the ref that matches satellite/master (most likely, it would be refs/remotes/satellite/master) in origin repository with it.

git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental

Create the branch experimental in the origin repository by copying the current master branch. This form is only needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise, the ref name on its own will work.

Author

Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>, later rewritten in C by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

Documentation

Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.

GIT

Part of the git[7] suite